Hybrid Vehicles
Plug-in Hybrid
Electric Vehicle

Hybrid Vehicles

Hybrid Electric Vehicles are powered by an IC (Internal Combustion) engine and an electric motor, utilizing energy stored in batteries. A hybrid electric vehicle does not require to be plugged in to charge the battery, the battery is charged through regenerative braking and by the IC engine

Key Components of a Hybrid Electric Car

Battery (auxiliary):

The low-voltage auxiliary battery provides electricity to start the vehicle before the traction battery is engaged and it also provides power to vehicle accessories.

DC/DC converter:

DC/DC converter converts higher-voltage DC power from the traction battery pack to the lower-voltage DC power which is required to run vehicle accessories and recharge the auxiliary battery.

Electric generator:

Generates electricity from the rotating wheels while braking, transferring that energy back to traction battery pack.

Electric traction motor:

This motor drives the vehicle’s wheels by using the power from traction battery pack.

Exhaust system:

The exhaust system removes the exhaust gases from the engine out through the tailpipe. A three-way catalyst is designed to reduce engine-out emissions within the exhaust system.

Fuel filler:

A nozzle from a fuel dispenser attaches to the receptacle on the vehicle to fill the tank.

Fuel tank:

This tank stores fuel on board the vehicle until it's needed by the engine.

Internal combustion engine (spark-ignited):

Fuel is injected into either the inlet manifold or the combustion chamber, where it is combined with air, and the air/fuel mixture is ignited by the spark from a spark plug.

Power electronics controller:

This unit controls the speed of the electric traction motor and its torque by managing the flow of electrical energy delivered by the traction battery.

Thermal system (cooling):

This system maintains an optimum operating temperature range of the engine, electric motor, power electronics, and other components.

Traction battery pack:

Stores electricity for use by the electric traction motor.


The transmission transfers mechanical power from the engine and/or electric traction motor to drive the wheels.