All-electric vehicles (EVs), also referred to as Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs), have an electric motor instead of an internal combustion engine. The vehicle uses a traction battery pack to power the electric motor and must be plugged in to a wall outlet or charging equipment, also called Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). As it runs purely on electricity, the vehicle emits no exhaust from a tailpipe and does not contain the typical liquid fuel components, such as a fuel pump, fuel line, or fuel tank
Battery (all-electric auxiliary):
In an electric drive vehicle, the auxiliary battery provides electricity to power vehicle accessories.
The charge port allows the vehicle to connect to an external power supply in order to charge the traction battery pack.
DC/DC converter converts higher-voltage DC power from the traction battery pack to the lower-voltage DC power which is required to run vehicle accessories and recharge the auxiliary battery.
Electric traction motor:
Using power from the traction battery pack, this motor drives the vehicle's wheels. Some vehicles use motor generators that perform both the drive and regeneration functions.
Onboard charger converts AC to DC power for charging the traction battery. It also communicates with the charging equipment and monitors battery characteristics such as voltage, current, temperature, and state of charge while charging the pack.
Power electronics controller:
This unit controls the speed of the electric traction motor and its torque by managing the flow of electrical energy delivered by the traction battery.
Thermal system (cooling):
This system maintains an optimum operating temperature range of the engine, electric motor, power electronics, and other components.
Traction battery pack:
Stores electricity for use by the electric traction motor.
The transmission transfers mechanical power from the electric traction motor to drive the wheels.